This page of our free ParaPro Study Guide covers all types of measurements, including time and money. You will learn about different units of measurement and how to convert between various units. After you read through this material, you can take the measurement review test to check your progress.

## Time & Money

We can represent values of time and money in different ways that all have the same meaning. Sometimes, when we communicate time or money, we use phrases like ”quarter past 10” or ”half dollar.” In this lesson, you will learn how to use these terms to represent time and money.

When a time ends with :15 or :45, we can say the time is a ”quarter past” or a ”quarter til” an hour, respectively, because 15 minutes is $\frac{1}{4}$ or one quarter of an hour. We can also describe 30 minutes as a ”half hour” because 30 is half of 60. The following are examples:

- 11:15 can be expressed as ”a quarter after 11” or ”15 minutes after 11”
- 10:45 can be expressed as ”a quarter til 11” or ”15 minutes til 11”

Time can be expressed in two ways: digital and analog.

Analog time is shown with the help of a clock with hour, minute, and second hands while digital time is shown with numbers separated by the “:” symbol. The bullets above begin with time written digitally: 11:15 and 10:45.

There are different ways we can write amounts of money as well, like using cents, dollars, or symbols. Some examples include:

- $1.00 = 100 cents = two half-dollars
- Fifty cents = $0.50 = half dollar

## Measurement & Conversion

Measurement** **is a way to find the size or amount of something. We can measure:

- Length — how long or short
- Weight — how heavy
- Time — how long
- Volume — how much capacity

Each of these measures has different units, and we will learn how to convert from one unit to another. Let’s go over some common conversions:

1 minute = 60 seconds | 1 hour = 60 minutes |

1 day = 24 hours | 1 week = 7 days |

1 pint = 2 cups | 2 pints = 1 quart |

4 quarts = 1 gallon | 1 foot = 12 inches |

1 kilogram = 1000 grams | 1 gram = 1000 milligrams |

1 meter = 100 centimeters | 1 kilometer = 1000 meters |

1 yard = 3 feet | 1 mile = 5280 feet |

1 pound = 16 ounces | 1 ton = 2000 pounds |

### The following steps will help you convert units.

1. Say you want to convert 3 feet into inches. Write the standard conversion ratio (as seen in the chart above) as a fraction:

$ \dfrac{12 \ \text{inches}}{1 \ \text{foot}}$

2. Set up a multiplication problem with what you are converting times the conversion ratio, arranged so that the unit you are converting *from* is on the top* ***and** bottom in the problem:

$3 \ \text{feet} \ \times \ \dfrac{12 \ \text{inches}}{1 \ \text{foot}}$

3. Cancel out the alike units so that you are left with only one unit (the one you are converting *to*):

$ \require{cancel} 3 \ \cancel{\text{feet}} \ \times \ \dfrac{12 \ \text{inches}}{1 \ \cancel{\text{foot}}}$

4. Multiply across and divide if needed to get your final answer:

$3 \ \times \ \dfrac{12 \ \text{inches}}{1} = 36 \ \text{inches}$

Example 1

### What time does the clock below show?

The hour hand is pointing between $1$ and $2$, so consider the value which comes earlier.

In this case, it is $1$.

The minute hand is pointing at the third division after $8$.

$8$ represents $8 × 5 = 40$ minutes

The minute hand shows $40 + 3 = 43$ minutes

Time shown by the clock is $1$:$43$ (or $43$ minutes past $1$).

Example 2

### Convert $2$ miles into feet.

$\require{cancel} 2 \ \text{miles} \; \times \ \dfrac{5280 \ \text{feet}}{1 \ \text{mile}} ⇒ 2 \ \cancel{\text{miles}} \ \times \dfrac{5280 \ \text{feet}}{1 \ \cancel{\text{mile}}}$

$\require{cancel} ⇒ \dfrac{ 2 \times 5280 \ \text{feet}}{1} = 10,560 \ \text{feet}$

Example 3

### Convert $360$ seconds into minutes.

$\require{cancel} 360 \ \text{seconds} \; \times \ \dfrac{1 \ \text{minute}}{60 \ \text{seconds}} ⇒ 360 \ \cancel{\text{seconds}} \ \times \ \dfrac{1 \ \text{minute}}{60 \ \cancel{\text{seconds}}}$

$\require{cancel} ⇒ \dfrac{ 360 \ \text{minutes}}{60} = 6 \ \text{minutes}$

You should now have a good understanding of measurement and how to convert between different units of measurement. Make sure that you are fully prepared for these types of ParaPro math questions with this measurement review test.